Which is a way some people cope with the ambiguity of human freedom? a. drifting b. shared decision making

1. Which is a way some people cope with the ambiguity of human freedom? a. drifting b. shared decision making c. appealing to some type of authority d. All of the above. 2. Change or development in a desirable direction is called: a. personal growth b. personal freedom c. self-direction d. individualism 3. Altruism means: a. helping someone else at a cost to yourself b. possessing a sense of personal freedom c. having a sense of control over others’ lives d. fearing making decisions 4. According to Maslow, which disorder does not result from the failure to grow? a. stunted person b. amoral person c. apathetic person d. adjusted person 5. Researchers have found high stability across a lifespan for which personality trait? a. introversion-extroversion b. perfectionism c. authoritarianism d. self-esteem 6. The highest degree of stability of personality has been found in the domain of: a. introversion-extroversion b. perfectionism c. authoritarianism d. self-esteem 4 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 7. All of the following traits remain rather stable over a lifetime EXCEPT: a. neuroticism b. expressiveness c. self-esteem d. introversion 8. The experience of personal growth usually begins with: a. reorganizing our experience b. acknowledging change c. feeling anxiety and discomfort d. changing our attitudes 9. According to Erikson, the second stage of psychosocial development poses the developmental task of: a. autonomy vs. shame b. trust vs. mistrust c. industry vs. inferiority d. initiative vs. guilt 10. From 3 to 6 years of age, children are faced with the crisis of: a. autonomy vs. shame b. trust vs. mistrust c. identity vs. role confusion d. initiative vs. guilt 11. According to Erikson, individuals face the identity vs. role confusion stage at what age? a. 3-6 b. 6-11 c. 12-18 d. 20-40 12. According to Erikson, in young adulthood, the inability to establish rewarding relationships with friends result in a sense of: a. inferiority b. stagnation c. despair d. isolation 5 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 13. What is Erikson’s final stage of psychosocial development? a. integrity vs. despair b. generativity vs. stagnation c. industry vs. inferiority d. initiative vs. guilt 14. _________ is the addition of something that increases the likelihood of a behavior occuring again. a. Temperament b. Attachment c. Social learning d. Reinforcement 15. The process by which we learn by observing is called: a. punishment b. reinforcement c. learning theory d. observational learning 16. Carol likes Dr. Reed, the supervisor of her practice teaching. In fact, Carol often finds herself adopting many of Dr. Reed’s methods and mannerisms in the classroom. Bandura refers to this type of learning as: a. classical conditioning b. observational learning c. identification with the parent figure d. due to the effects of unconscious Oedipal wishes 17. Women in middle adulthood go through significant physical changes called: a. cessation b. menopause c. reproduction d. dysfunction 18. Which statement regarding Alzheimer’s disease is true? a. Alzheimer’s usually strikes in middle age. b. There is no way to diagnose Alzheimer’s. c. Alzheimer’s is a degenerative brain disorder. d. All of these are true. 6 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 19. Which statement is NOT true of hormone replacement therapy? a. It lowers the risk of most types of cancer. b. It helps to alleviate such symptoms as hot flashes, night sweats, and dry skin. c. African American women are less likely to use it than White women. d. It reduces the risk rates of osteoporosis and heart disease. 20. Viagra is used to: a. treat loss of appetite b. treat memory loss c. improve facial appearance in women d. treat erectile inhibition 21. Ageism refers to: a. the midlife crisis b. the study of people over the age of 80 c. the inherent rights of the elderly d. negative attitudes toward older Americans 22. Which of the following is NOT important in healthy aging? a. exercising b. smoking cessation c. eating well d. avoiding physicians 23. Which of the following is generally a sign of low self-esteem? a. savoring one’s accomplishments and successes b. bragging excessively about one’s achievements c. expressing one’s opinions readily d. making demands on oneself to do better next time 24. Low self-esteem is characterized by: a. refusal to accept praise b. poor performance on academic tests c. looking at oneself in the mirror often d. All of the above. 7 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 25. Which of these is NOT associated with high self-esteem? a. greater happiness b. bullying behaviors c. better job performance d. lower alcohol and drug abuse 26. People tend to elicit feedback that confirms their own self-perceptions, both positive and negative, according to: a. self-enhancement theory b. social-self theory c. self-verification theory d. ideal self theory 27. Self-esteem of minority individuals is found to be as high as that of Whites because minority: a. individuals have as many opportunities as Whites b. individuals often compare themselves to each other rather than to Whites c. populations have grown in size d. groups no longer experience as much prejudice as they used to 28. When people visualize themselves as competent, successful persons, they tend to: a. earn higher than average salaries b. become more successful than their peers c. cope more effectively with present problems d. succumb to pathological self-deception 29. Which of these is NOT key to quitting smoking? a. avoiding relapse at all costs b. getting support and encouragement c. getting medication and using it correctly d. learning new skills and behaviors 30. Those most likely to drink excessively are: a. 18- to 25-year-old men b. middle-aged men c. widowers and widows d. preteens 8 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 31. The leading cause of death among youths in America is: a. AIDS b. heart disease c. overexertion on the athletic field d. car accidents involving alcohol 32. Youth are most at risk for drug abuse: a. at school events b. during any major transitions c. in middle school d. as college students 33. The use of unhealthy substances (e.g., cigarettes, alcohol, or drugs) is depicted in: a. 10 percent of G rated films b. 50 percent of PG-13 films c. 80 percent of all films d. 95 percent of all films 34. Those who underreport their physical symptoms to health care professionals are: a. likely to be extroverts b. known as “hypochondriacs” c. self-conscious people d. self-healing personalities 35. Alexei and Tanya were disappointed when it rained during their first day of camping, but Alexei said, “Let’s not panic. It’s supposed to clear up later today.” His upbeat attitude is characteristic of those who interpret undesirable events in: a. external, temporary, and specific terms b. internal, permanent, and universal terms c. external, permanent, and universal terms d. internal, temporary, and specific terms 36. Which of the following best exemplifies appropriate learned optimism? a. “I guess she isn’t going to call back.” b. “It was a good interview but nothing will probably come of it.” c. “She didn’t return my call; she must be busy.” d. “No wonder she doesn’t call back. I’ve been inconsiderate of her.” 9 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 37. Optimism is especially appropriate in those situations in which: a. you want to gain people’s confidence b. your goal involves a high degree of risk c. the cost of failure is high d. you want to be sympathetic with people’s troubles 38. Being optimistic is inappropriate when: a. there are many risks involved b. there are many people with unique responsibilities c. multiple solutions to an issue are available d. None of the above. 39. Which of these is NOT a stage in the recommended process for decision making? a. search for alternatives b. make a commitment c. rise to the challenge d. avoid looking back 40. The most critical element in decision making, especially in the early stages, is: a. taking risks b. clarifying values c. vigorous information processing d. justifying your choices 41. When presented with a modest person and a self-promoter, which did Japanese children perceive as more athletically competent? a. they were perceived to be equally competent b. the modest person c. the self-promoter d. neither was selected 42. According to the text, one of the four important components of emotion is: a. social interaction b. behavioral stagnation c. cognitive processes d. self-efficacy 10 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 43. Which researcher has created a model of emotions? a. Bandura b. Howell c. Plutchik d. Richards 44. In Plutchik’s model, which is NOT one of the primary emotions? a. acceptance b. disgust c. anger d. embarrassment 45. When people of various countries are asked about their experiences of different emotions, most of them distinguish emotions with regard to: a. primary and secondary emotions b. inborn and learned emotions c. pleasant and unpleasant emotions d. simple and complex emotions 46. Men tend to report more ________ feelings, while women tend to report ________ feelings. a. powerless; powerful b. powerful; powerless c. negative; positive d. positive; negative 47. If we see people as cold and withdrawn, we tend to attribute additional negative qualities to them. This is called: a. the halo effect b. stereotyping c. false cues d. the devil effect 48. The fundamental attribution error causes us to misjudge people because: a. we are impressed by wealth b. of their personal traits and characteristics c. of situational and environmental influences d. we are influenced by unconscious motives 11 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 49. In which country are people the least shy? a. Israel b. India c. Greece d. Japan 50. According to the text, to overcome shyness, it’s best to: a. reduce the inner monitoring of one’s thoughts b. pay less attention to people around you c. avoid situations involving others d. become keenly aware of how people see you 51. Shyness is on the rise in America because: a. more people are pursuing their own personal goals b. electronic communication has reduced face-to-face meetings c. more Americans are moving to big, crowded cities d. more children are being placed in daycare centers 52. The most common activity among women friends is: a. telling jokes b. having an intimate talk c. sharing a job-related chore d. doing a favor for a friend 53. Which of the following does NOT have an interdependent culture? a. Japan b. Zimbabwe c. The United States d. Lebanon 54. When flattery is used in the hopes that the flattered individual will give in to a certain request, this is a form of: a. the bystander effect b. ingratiation c. the norm of reciprocity d. the foot-in-the-door effect 12 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 55. In what type of social influence situation do we follow direct orders from others? a. conformity b. compliance c. interpersonal attraction d. obedience 56. Which factor reduces social loafing? a. When failure is possible if and only if loafing occurs. b. When people believe their performance will not be evaluated. c. When the task is not important. d. When the group is not valued by its individual members. 57. When groups make riskier or more conservative decisions than individuals, this is known as: a. groupthink b. the foot-in-the-door effect c. the group polarization effect d. the door-in-the-face effect 58. Two well-documented leadership styles are ______ and ______. a. severe; moderate b. people-oriented; task-oriented c. casual; intense d. thoughtful; thoughtless 59. Which is true of job burnout? a. Men are more likely to burn out. b. Those who are unmarried are more prone to burnout. c. Those who burn out are likely to have high self-esteem. d. Stress is rarely a factor in burnout. 60. How do most Americans feel about their jobs? a. Despite all the griping, most Americans report relatively high satisfaction. b. Most Americans dislike their jobs and want a job change. c. Midlevel managers report highest job satisfaction. d. People at the bottom of an organization are likeliest to report high job satisfaction. 13 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 61. Surveys on job satisfaction show that: a. People who love their jobs perform better than those who don’t. b. The highest-paying jobs tend to result in the highest job satisfaction. c. Workers prefer job where they don’t have to learn new skills. d. Recent graduates tend to enjoy high job satisfaction. 62. When asked about ways to get ahead on the job, most American workers emphasize the importance of: a. being willing to accept responsibility b. knowing the right people c. understanding how to use office politics d. complimenting your boss often 63. How has workplace technology changed our employment? a. It really hasn’t changed employment in America that much. b. It can affect us even before we are hired by means of e-recruiting. c. It has mostly affected upper-level management. d. It affects us only after we are hired and introduced to new technology. 64. One of the best ways to increase the proportion of minority groups in the workplace is to: a. lower the educational requirements for many jobs b. raise the educational level of minority students c. provide more high-tech jobs in the workplace d. encourage minority students to take jobs in manufacturing 65. Masters et al. found greater orgasmic variation in both the physiology and subjective accounts of orgasm among: a. men compared to women b. homosexuals compared to heterosexuals c. women compared to men d. married couples compared to unmarried couples 66. What is the most significant life stressor for homosexuals? a. discovering their homosexual orientation b. telling friends and family about their sexual orientation c. having their first homosexual encounter d. all of these are equally stressful according to the literature 14 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 67. People who believe they were born into the body of the wrong sex are: a. homosexual b. transsexual c. hermaphrodites d. transvestites 68. People who are born with chromosomal or hormonal birth defects so they do not really fit into “male” or “female” categories are: a. transvestites b. intersexed c. transsexual d. autoerotic 69. A loving relationship based primarily on emotional closeness rather than physical intimacy is called: a. romantic love b. consummate love c. companionate love d. passionate love 70. Hypoactive, or inhibited, sexual desire is commonly caused by: a. anger, boredom, or anxiety b. genetic deficiencies c. psychopathology d. hormonal deficiencies 71. Which statement about marriage in the U.S. is true? a. People are getting married later in life. b. People tend to marry someone of similar age, education, and background. c. Intercultural marriages are more conflict-prone but not more divorce-prone. d. All of these are true. 72. Approximately _________ out of every 10 marriages end in divorce. a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 8 15 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 73. Which statement about marriage is false? a. More than 9 out of 10 Americans will eventually marry. b. Husbands and wives should be best friends. c. Differences and incompatibilities between partners are the major causes of marital dissatisfaction. d. Married people are happier and healthier than single individuals. 74. An overview of numerous marital studies reported in the text indicated that a major factor related to marital satisfaction is: a. joint problem-solving ability b. wanting the relationship to succeed c. a satisfying sex life d. financial security 75. When women work outside of the home: a. they still do most of the housework b. the couple is less satisfied c. the husbands usually do half of all housework d. they do less housework than men 76. How do homosexual couples distribute housework? a. Work is fairly equally distributed. b. Work is distributed about the same as heterosexual couples. c. The more masculine partner does the most. d. The more masculine partner does the least. 77. What is the correct sequence in the general adaptation syndrome? a. alarm, exhaustion, resistance b. resistance, alarm, exhaustion c. exhaustion, resistance, alarm d. alarm, resistance, exhaustion 16 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 78. Diane, a keyboard specialist, adapted to her stressful job with few complaints. Now, a year later, Diane has chronic headaches from the demands of her boss to meet deadlines and to type accurately. Such stress-related illnesses are likely to occur in which stage of the general adaptation syndrome? a. alarm b. resistance c. exhaustion d. the intermediate stage 79. Cumulative changes that reflect the cost to the body for adapting to stressful demands is called: a. homeostasis b. allostatic load c. repression d. acting out 80. The unconscious blocking of a threatening impulse or idea from entering one’s consciousness is: a. denial b. projection c. repression d. None of the above. 81. Sarah’s father is gravely ill; Sarah, however, does not respond emotionally. Rather, Sarah convinces herself that he is in a good hospital and that the doctors are doing everything they can. Sarah’s strategy for coping might be: a. denial b. intellectualization c. displacement d. repression 82. When Mohammed’s girlfriend unexpectedly broke off their relationship, he said it was just as well because he no longer loved her. Yet, Mohammed did love her unconsciously. Mohammed’s response is an example of: a. reaction formation b. denial c. sublimation d. repression 17 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 83. A critical feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder is: a. an overinflated sense of responsibility b. fear of dirt c. fear of losing control d. anxiety about being anxious all the time 84. A(n) __________ is someone with OCD who wants his or her possessions in their rightful place and arranged in a certain way. a. hoarder b. pure obsessive c. repeater d. orderer 85. Flashbacks are associated with what disorder? a. OCD b. phobia c. PTSD d. None of the above. 86. During college, three-quarters of all students experience some symptoms of: a. antisocial personality b. agoraphobia c. schizophrenia d. depression 87. People who become depressed in the winter months because of seasonal affective disorder are thought to suffer from an imbalance of the hormone called: a. dopamine b. melatonin c. adrenaline d. thyroxin 88. Which is NOT a plausible reason why women are more prone to depression than men? a. They aren’t; they are just more likely to seek professional help. b. Women have unequal power and status compared to men. c. Women are more likely to live in poverty than men. d. The region of the brain affected by depression is eight times larger in women than in men. 18 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 89. Who is associated with cognitive therapy? a. Sigmund Freud b. Fritz Perls c. Victor Frankl d. Aaron Beck 90. Couples often come to relationship therapy because of infidelity on the part of one partner. During therapy: a. the therapist works only with the offending partner. b. the therapist works mainly with the offended partner. c. the therapist focuses on both partners’ interaction. d. the therapist usually recommends that they split up. 91. The most common mode of treatment in psychiatry is: a. biomedical therapy alone b. psychotherapy alone c. family therapy d. psychotherapy combined with biomedical therapy 92. Which statement about antianxiety medications is true? a. These medications do not cure anxiety. b. These drugs are dangerous to take in combination with alcohol. c. They provide prompt alleviation from symptoms. d. All of the above. 93. After beginning treatment, antidepressants take effect: a. immediately b. within a few days c. within two weeks d. after two to four weeks 94. In persons with schizophrenia, antipsychotic drugs tend to reduce: a. apathy b. loneliness c. hallucinations d. social withdrawal 19 Final Examination GED 215 Psychology of Adjustment 95. After the bargaining stage, individuals enter which stage? a. denial b. depression c. resentment d. acceptance 96. Acceptance of death includes: a. denying that death is imminent b. bargaining c. disengaging the self from others d. All of these are part of the acceptance stage. 97. The healthy process of working through the emotions associated with loss is called: a. grief work b. mourning c. unresolved grief d. bereavement 98. Which of the following is a normal initial response to death? a. sadness b. guilt c. relief d. All of the above. 99. About _________ year(s) is the norm for grief work. a. one b. two c. three d. four 100. Which one of the following groups has an above-average death rate compared to others the same age? a. elderly people who are unhappily married b. widowed men between 55 and 65 years of age c. elderly widowers who have remarried d. widowed women between 55 and 65 years of age 

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