critical thinking amp decision making

3–4 pages in length, in APA format (excluding cover page, abstract, and reference list)

must have an abstract

les than 15% plagerism

I. Use Venn diagrams to test the validity of the following arguments.

1. No sharks are pets, since no barracuda are pets, and no sharks are barracuda.

2. No farmers are city dwellers. Hence, since all city dwellers are urbanites, no

urbanites are farmers.

3. All curmudgeons are pessimists. All pessimists are cynics. So, some cynics are


4. Some bankers are vegetarians. No anarchists are bankers. So, some anarchists

are not vegetarians.

5. No beach bums are workaholics. Some beach bums are roller bladers. So,

some roller bladers are not workaholics.

6. All violinists are musicians. Therefore, since some bookworms are violinists,

some bookworms are musicians.

7. No poker players are early risers. Some fire fighters are early risers. So, some

fire fighters are not poker players.

8. Some dot-com millionaires are philanthropists. All philanthropists are altruists.

Hence, some altruists are dot-com millionaires.

9. Some telemarketers are Methodists. Some Methodists are Democrats. So,

some Democrats are telemarketers.

10. No Fords are Pontiacs. All Escorts are Fords. So, some Escorts are not Pontiacs.

11. No mockingbirds are cardinals. Some cardinals are songbirds. So, some

songbirds are not mockingbirds.

Categorical Syllogisms 249

12. All ecologists are environmentalists. Hence, because all ecologists are

wilderness-lovers, all wilderness-lovers are environmentalists.

13. No landlubbers are sailors. Some sailors are not pirates. So, some pirates are

not landlubbers.

14. All cats are carnivores. All tigers are cats. So, all tigers are carnivores.

15. All sound arguments are valid arguments. Therefore, because some sound

arguments are mathematical arguments, some mathematical arguments are

not valid arguments.

16. No fish are reptiles. All trout are fish. So, some trout are not reptiles.

17. Some dreamers are not romantics, because some idealists are not romantics,

and all idealists are dreamers.

18. Some stockbrokers are couch potatoes. Hence, because all stockbrokers are

e-traders, some e-traders are couch potatoes.

19. Some butchers are not bakers. No butchers are candlestick makers.

Therefore, some candlestick makers are not bakers.

20. All meteorologists are forecasters. Hence, because some forecasters are

psychics, some psychics are meteorologists.

II. Translate the following into standard categorical form. Then use Venn diagrams

to test the arguments for validity.

1. No one who is a Nobel Prize winner is a rock star. A number of astrophysicists

are Nobel Prize winners. Therefore, a number of astrophysicists are not

rock stars.

2. Many philosophers are determinists. Anyone who is a fatalist is a determinist.

So, many fatalists are philosophers.

3. If anything is a maple, then it’s a tree. Hence, because nothing that is a bush

is a tree, nothing that is a bush is a maple.

4. Everybody who is a liberal is a big spender. Therefore, because Senator

Crumley is a big spender, Senator Crumley is a liberal.

5. Many tarot-readers are lottery players. Every tarot-reader is a fraud. So, many

frauds are not lottery players.

6. Only poems are sonnets. No mathematical treatise is a poem. Therefore, no

mathematical treatise is a sonnet.

7. At least one lawyer is not a golfer. Only persons who have attended law school

are lawyers. So, at least one person who has attended law school is not a golfer.

8. No one who is a cardsharp is a psychic. Someone is a cardsharp only if he is

a poker player. Therefore, some poker players are not psychics.

9. Whatever is a fish is a nonmammal. Each pickerel is a fish. So, no pickerel is

a mammal.

10. Only social scientists are political scientists. Many political scientists are persons

who favor campaign finance reform. Accordingly, many persons who

favor campaign finance reform are social scientists.

11. Egoists are not humanitarians. Not a single humanitarian is a sweatshop

owner. So, not a single sweatshop owner is an egoist.

12. There are e-mail messages that are not spell-checked. There are interoffice

memos that are e-mail messages. Therefore, there are interoffice memos that

are not spell-checked.

13. Every tax evader is a lawbreaker. Hence, because no one who is a lawbreaker

is a model citizen, no one who is a model citizen is a tax evader.

14. If anything is a truck, then it is not a car. There are Mazdas that are trucks. It

follows that there are Mazdas that are not cars.

15. Any dog is furry. Lassie is a dog. So, Lassie is furry.

16. Not every lie is immoral, for no harmless acts are immoral and some lies are


17. Mystics are always religious. At least one religious person is not greedy.

Consequently, at least one mystic is not greedy.

18. Every person who drinks and drives is an irresponsible person. Not

every person who talks on a car phone is an irresponsible person. Hence,

not every person who talks on a car phone is a person who drinks and


19. Anyone who eats pizza every night is at risk for heart disease. Some people

who are at risk for heart disease are cab drivers. So, some cab drivers are

people who eat pizza every night.

20. Joey is in kindergarten. Only children in kindergarten finger paint in school.

So, Joey fingerpaints in school.

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